Around 17,500 adC, the first men arrived at which at the moment it is Peruvian territory, much later of which the first humans, recolectors and hunters coming from Asia, crossed the Straits of Bering. Have been vestiges of the origin of American agriculture in the Cave of the Guitarrero in Yungay, Ancash of 12,600 years ago (10600 adC), of populations in the Freedom of twelve thousand years of age and in Tacna of eleven thousand years ago.

Towards the end of the last freezing these first settlers began the slow process of local domestication of animals and plants and consequently to meet in tribes and villages to possibly form ayllus. In the middle of III the millenium aC was restored first city-been of theocratic regime. The civilization of the Caral, oldest of the American continent, was contemporary of others like those of China, Egypt, India and Mesopotamia; having itself turned then a city already been, surrounded by other civilizations still framed in which "sociedad is denominated aldeana".

Thus, one is one of the geographic zones that can be considered as it cradles of the civilization of the world by his antiquity (c. 5,000 years). At the end of this period the Chavín prevailed over the others, until its influence decayed and the development of ampler States in the base of new local cultures like Mochica was stimulated, Lima, Is born, Wari and Tiwanaku. The Wari culture developed the classic model of the Andean State with the sprouting of the cities of imperial cut, model that expanded by the north towards century VIII. This culture along with the Tiwanaquense managed to superpose itself to the others until aims of century IX. from then, new imperial states of regional reach throughout the andes (like Chimú) with the development of States with greater territoriality are elevated.

Of between these señoríos it emphasizes the one of the Incas, who towards century XV annexed all the Andean towns between the rivers Maule and Ancasmayo, reaching an area near 3 million of km², today located in the territories of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina and Chile, conforming what today Inca knows itself like the Empire. Its capital was the Cusco, located in the Peruvian mountain range. In addition to its military power, they emphasized in architecture, constructing magnificent structures like ciudadela of Machu Picchu.